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SpringBoot和web开发(4)

Eric
2022-02-15 / 0 评论 / 0 点赞 / 140 阅读 / 7,362 字 / 正在检测是否收录...
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1 简介

  • 使用SpringBoot步骤:

    • 创建SpringBoot应用,选中我们需要的模块。
    • SpringBoot已经默认将这些场景配置好了,只需要在配置文件指定少量配置就可以运行起来。
    • 自己编写业务逻辑代码。
  • 自动配置原理:这个场景SpringBoot帮我们配置了什么?能不能修改?能修改哪些配置?能不能扩展?

xxxAutoConfiguration:帮我们在容器中自动配置组件。
xxxProperties:配置类封装配置文件的内容。

2 SpringBoot对静态资源的映射规则

  • WebMvcAutoConfiguration的部分源码如下:
@Configuration
@ConditionalOnWebApplication
@ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, DispatcherServlet.class,
        WebMvcConfigurerAdapter.class })
@ConditionalOnMissingBean(WebMvcConfigurationSupport.class)
@AutoConfigureOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE + 10)
@AutoConfigureAfter({ DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration.class,
        ValidationAutoConfiguration.class })
public class WebMvcAutoConfiguration {
    
    @Configuration
    @Import(EnableWebMvcConfiguration.class)
    @EnableConfigurationProperties({ WebMvcProperties.class, ResourceProperties.class })
    public static class WebMvcAutoConfigurationAdapter extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {
        //静态资源处理器
        @Override
        public void addResourceHandlers(ResourceHandlerRegistry registry) {
            if (!this.resourceProperties.isAddMappings()) {
                logger.debug("Default resource handling disabled");
                return;
            }
            Integer cachePeriod = this.resourceProperties.getCachePeriod();
            if (!registry.hasMappingForPattern("/webjars/**")) {
                customizeResourceHandlerRegistration(
                    registry.addResourceHandler("/webjars/**")
                    .addResourceLocations(
                        "classpath:/META-INF/resources/webjars/")
                    .setCachePeriod(cachePeriod));
            }
            String staticPathPattern = this.mvcProperties.getStaticPathPattern();
            if (!registry.hasMappingForPattern(staticPathPattern)) {
                customizeResourceHandlerRegistration(
                    registry.addResourceHandler(staticPathPattern)
                    .addResourceLocations(
                        this.resourceProperties.getStaticLocations())
                    .setCachePeriod(cachePeriod));
            }
        }

        //欢迎页
        @Bean
        public WelcomePageHandlerMapping welcomePageHandlerMapping(
            ResourceProperties resourceProperties) {
            return new WelcomePageHandlerMapping(resourceProperties.getWelcomePage(),
                                                 this.mvcProperties.getStaticPathPattern());
        }
        
        //配置喜欢的图标
        @Configuration
        @ConditionalOnProperty(value = "spring.mvc.favicon.enabled", matchIfMissing = true)
        public static class FaviconConfiguration {

            private final ResourceProperties resourceProperties;

            public FaviconConfiguration(ResourceProperties resourceProperties) {
                this.resourceProperties = resourceProperties;
            }

            @Bean
            public SimpleUrlHandlerMapping faviconHandlerMapping() {
                SimpleUrlHandlerMapping mapping = new SimpleUrlHandlerMapping();
                mapping.setOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE + 1);
                //所有**/favicon.ico
                mapping.setUrlMap(Collections.singletonMap("**/favicon.ico",
                                                           faviconRequestHandler()));
                return mapping;
            }

            @Bean
            public ResourceHttpRequestHandler faviconRequestHandler() {
                ResourceHttpRequestHandler requestHandler = new ResourceHttpRequestHandler();
                requestHandler
                    .setLocations(this.resourceProperties.getFaviconLocations());
                return requestHandler;
            }

        }
        
        
    }    

    
}
  • 所有/webjars/**,都去classpath:/META-INF/resources/webjars/找静态资源。

    • webjars:以jar包的形式引入静态资源。
    • 比如:浏览器发送http://localhost:8080/webjars/jquery/3.5.1/jquery.js请求,SpringBoot就会到classpath:/META-INF/resources/webjars/jquery/3.5.1/jquery.js这个路径查找jquery.js文件。
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.webjars</groupId>
    <artifactId>jquery</artifactId>
    <version>3.5.1</version>
</dependency>

webjars.png

/**

访问当前项目的任何资源(静态资源的文件夹):

"classpath:/META-INF/resources/"
"classpath:/resources/"
"classpath:/static/"
"classpath:/public/"
"/"
    • 比如:浏览器发送http://localhost:8080/asserts/css/bootstrap.min.css请求,SpringBoot就会到静态资源文件夹中寻找/asserts/css/bootstrap.min.css的路径去寻找bootstrap.min.css文件。

访问当前项目的任何资源.png

  • 欢迎页,静态资源文件夹下的index.html页面,被/**映射。

  • 比如:浏览器发送http://localhost:8080请求,默认情况下,会去静态资源文件夹下找index.html页面。

  • 所有的**/favicon.ico都是在静态资源文件夹下寻找。

3 模板引擎

3.1 简介

  • JSP、Velocity、Freemarker、Thymeleaf……都是模板引擎。

  • 模板引擎的原理:

模板引擎.jpg

3.2 Thymeleaf

3.2.1 Thymeleaf概述

  • SpringBoot推荐Thymeleaf。

  • Thymeleaf语法更简单,功能更强大。

3.2.2 Thymeleaf准备

  • 导入thymeleaf相关jar包的Maven坐标:
<properties>
    <thymeleaf.version>3.0.9.RELEASE</thymeleaf.version>
    <thymeleaf-layout-dialect.version>2.3.0</thymeleaf-layout-dialect.version>
</properties>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-thymeleaf</artifactId>
</dependency>
  • ThymeleafProperties:
@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "spring.thymeleaf")
public class ThymeleafProperties {

    private static final Charset DEFAULT_ENCODING = Charset.forName("UTF-8");

    private static final MimeType DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE = MimeType.valueOf("text/html");

    public static final String DEFAULT_PREFIX = "classpath:/templates/";

    public static final String DEFAULT_SUFFIX = ".html";
     
    //略
}
  • 从ThymeleafProperties的源码可知:我们只要将HTML页面放在classpath:/templates/,Thymeleaf就能自动渲染。

3.2.3 Thymeleaf使用

  • 导入thymeleaf的名称空间:
<html lang="en" xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org">
  • 使用thymeleaf语法:
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en" xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>

    <div th:text="helloworld">哇,好(*^▽^*)</div>

</body>
</html>

3.2.4 Thymeleaf语法规则

文本

  • th:text:改变当前元素里面的文本内容。

  • th:任意html属性:来替换原生属性的值。

  • th:insertth:replace:片段包含。

  • th:each:遍历。

  • th:ifth:unlessth:case:条件判断。

  • th:objectth:with:声明变量。

  • th:attrth:attrprependth:attrappend:任意属性修改。

  • th:valueth:hrefth:src:修改指定属性默认值。

  • th:fragment:声明片段。

  • th"remove:移除。

表达式

Simple expressions:(表达式语法)
    Variable Expressions: ${...}:获取变量值;OGNL;
            1)、获取对象的属性、调用方法
            2)、使用内置的基本对象:
                #ctx : the context object.
                #vars: the context variables.
                #locale : the context locale.
                #request : (only in Web Contexts) the HttpServletRequest object.
                #response : (only in Web Contexts) the HttpServletResponse object.
                #session : (only in Web Contexts) the HttpSession object.
                #servletContext : (only in Web Contexts) the ServletContext object.
                
                ${session.foo}
            3)、内置的一些工具对象:
#execInfo : information about the template being processed.
#messages : methods for obtaining externalized messages inside variables expressions, in the same way as they would be obtained using #{…} syntax.
#uris : methods for escaping parts of URLs/URIs
#conversions : methods for executing the configured conversion service (if any).
#dates : methods for java.util.Date objects: formatting, component extraction, etc.
#calendars : analogous to #dates , but for java.util.Calendar objects.
#numbers : methods for formatting numeric objects.
#strings : methods for String objects: contains, startsWith, prepending/appending, etc.
#objects : methods for objects in general.
#bools : methods for boolean evaluation.
#arrays : methods for arrays.
#lists : methods for lists.
#sets : methods for sets.
#maps : methods for maps.
#aggregates : methods for creating aggregates on arrays or collections.
#ids : methods for dealing with id attributes that might be repeated (for example, as a result of an iteration).

    Selection Variable Expressions: *{...}:选择表达式:和${}在功能上是一样;
        补充:配合 th:object="${session.user}:
   <div th:object="${session.user}">
    <p>Name: <span th:text="*{firstName}">Sebastian</span>.</p>
    <p>Surname: <span th:text="*{lastName}">Pepper</span>.</p>
    <p>Nationality: <span th:text="*{nationality}">Saturn</span>.</p>
    </div>
    
    Message Expressions: #{...}:获取国际化内容
    Link URL Expressions: @{...}:定义URL;
            @{/order/process(execId=${execId},execType='FAST')}
    Fragment Expressions: ~{...}:片段引用表达式
            <div th:insert="~{commons :: main}">...</div>
            
Literals(字面量)
      Text literals: 'one text' , 'Another one!' ,…
      Number literals: 0 , 34 , 3.0 , 12.3 ,…
      Boolean literals: true , false
      Null literal: null
      Literal tokens: one , sometext , main ,…
Text operations:(文本操作)
    String concatenation: +
    Literal substitutions: |The name is ${name}|
Arithmetic operations:(数学运算)
    Binary operators: + , - , * , / , %
    Minus sign (unary operator): -
Boolean operations:(布尔运算)
    Binary operators: and , or
    Boolean negation (unary operator): ! , not
Comparisons and equality:(比较运算)
    Comparators: > , < , >= , <= ( gt , lt , ge , le )
    Equality operators: == , != ( eq , ne )
Conditional operators:条件运算(三元运算符)
    If-then: (if) ? (then)
    If-then-else: (if) ? (then) : (else)
    Default: (value) ?: (defaultvalue)
Special tokens:
    No-Operation: _

4 SpringMVC自动配置

4.1 SpringMVC自动配置

  • SpringBoot自动配置好了SpringMVC,下面SpringBoot对SpringMVC的默认配置(WebMvcAutoConfiguration):

    • Inclusion of ContentNegotiatingViewResolver and BeanNameViewResolver beans。
      • 自动配置了ViewResolver(视图解析器,根据方法的返回值得到视图对象(View),视图对象决定如何渲染(转发?重定向?))。
      • ContentNegotiatingViewResolver :组合所有的视图解析器。
      • 如何定制?我们可以自己给容器中添加一个视图解析器,自动将其组合进来。
    • Support for serving static resources, including support for WebJars (see below)。
      • 支持静态资源文件夹路径和webjars。
    • Static index.html support.。
      • 首页访问。
    • Custom Favicon support (see below)。
      • favicon.ico。
    • 自动注册了 of Converter, GenericConverter, Formatter beans。
      • Converter:转换器。
      • Formatter :格式化器。
@Bean
@ConditionalOnProperty(prefix = "spring.mvc", name = "date-format") //在配置文件中配置日期格式化的规则
public Formatter<Date> dateFormatter() {
    return new DateFormatter(this.mvcProperties.getDateFormat()); //日期格式化组件
}
      • 我们自己添加的格式化器、转换器只需要放在容器中即可。
@Override
public void addFormatters(FormatterRegistry registry) {
    for (Converter<?, ?> converter : getBeansOfType(Converter.class)) {
        registry.addConverter(converter);
    }
    for (GenericConverter converter : getBeansOfType(GenericConverter.class)) {
        registry.addConverter(converter);
    }
    for (Formatter<?> formatter : getBeansOfType(Formatter.class)) {
        registry.addFormatter(formatter);
    }
}
    • Support for HttpMessageConverters (see below)。
      • HttpMessageConverter:SpringMVC用来转换Http的请求和响应的。比如JavaBean和JSON之间的转换。
      • HttpMessageConverters是从容器中获取的,并且获取所有的HttpMessageConverter。
      • 自己给容器中添加HttpMessageConverter,只需要自己将组件注册到容器中。
    • Automatic registration of MessageCodesResolver (see below)。
      • 定义错误代码生成规则。
    • Automatic use of a ConfigurableWebBindingInitializer bean (see below)。
      • 我们可以配置一个ConfigurableWebBindingInitializer来替换默认的。
    • ConfigurableWebBindingInitializer的作用就是初始化所有的WebDataBinder,而WebDataBinder的作用就是请求数据-->JavaBean。
  • If you want to keep Spring Boot MVC features, and you just want to add additional MVC configuration (interceptors, formatters, view controllers etc.) you can add your own @Configuration class of type WebMvcConfigurerAdapter, but without @EnableWebMvc. If you wish to provide custom instances of RequestMappingHandlerMapping, RequestMappingHandlerAdapter or ExceptionHandlerExceptionResolver you can declare a WebMvcRegistrationsAdapter instance providing such components.
    If you want to take complete control of Spring MVC, you can add your own @Configuration annotated with @EnableWebMvc.

4.2 扩展SpringMVC

  • 以前的springmvc.xml中配置拦截器等:
<mvc:view-controller path="/hello" view-name="success"/>
<mvc:interceptors>
    <mvc:interceptor>
        <mvc:mapping path="/hello"/>
        <bean></bean>
    </mvc:interceptor>
</mvc:interceptors>
  • 现在在SpringBoot中,编写一个配置类(用@Configuration注解标注的类),并且继承WebMvcConfigurerAdapter,但是不要标注@EnableWebMvc注解。这样既可以保留自动配置功能,又能使用我们自己扩展的配置。
package com.sunxiaping.springboot.config;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.ViewControllerRegistry;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.WebMvcConfigurerAdapter;

@Configuration
public class SpringMvcConfig extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {
    
    @Override
    public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
        registry.addViewController("/index").setViewName("index");
        registry.addViewController("/").setViewName("index");
        registry.addViewController("/index.html").setViewName("index");
        registry.addViewController("/index.htm").setViewName("index");
    }
}
  • 原理:

    • WebMvcAutoConfiguration是SpringMVC的自动配置类。
    • 在做其他自动配置的时候,会导入@Import(EnableWebMvcConfiguration.class)。
@Configuration
@ConditionalOnWebApplication
@ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, DispatcherServlet.class,
        WebMvcConfigurerAdapter.class })
@ConditionalOnMissingBean(WebMvcConfigurationSupport.class)
@AutoConfigureOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE + 10)
@AutoConfigureAfter({ DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration.class,
        ValidationAutoConfiguration.class })
public class WebMvcAutoConfiguration {
    
    @Configuration
    @Import(EnableWebMvcConfiguration.class)
    @EnableConfigurationProperties({ WebMvcProperties.class, ResourceProperties.class })
    public static class WebMvcAutoConfigurationAdapter extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {
       //其他略
    }
    
    @Configuration
    public static class EnableWebMvcConfiguration extends DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration {
        
    }    
    
    //其他略
}
    • DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration的部分源码如下:
@Configuration
public class DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration extends WebMvcConfigurationSupport {

    private final WebMvcConfigurerComposite configurers = new WebMvcConfigurerComposite();

    //会将所有的WebMvcConfigurer都导入到容器中
    @Autowired(required = false)
    public void setConfigurers(List<WebMvcConfigurer> configurers) {
        if (!CollectionUtils.isEmpty(configurers)) {
            this.configurers.addWebMvcConfigurers(configurers);
        }
    }
    
    //循环遍历所有的WebMvcConfigurer,并将每个WebMvcConfigurer配置的ViewController加入到容器中
    //这样就可以将所有的WebMvcConfigurer的相关配置一起作用
    @Override
    protected void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
        this.configurers.addViewControllers(registry);
    }
    
    //其他略
    
}
    • 容器中的所有WebMvcConfigurer都会一起起作用。
    • 我们自己配置类也会被调用。

4.3 全面接管SpringMVC

    • SpringBoot对SpringMVC的自动配置不需要了,所有的都需要我们配置。
    • 只需要在配置类中加@EnableWebMvc注解即可。
package com.sunxiaping.springboot.config;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.EnableWebMvc;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.ViewControllerRegistry;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.WebMvcConfigurerAdapter;

@Configuration
@EnableWebMvc
public class SpringMvcConfig extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
        registry.addViewController("/index").setViewName("index");
        registry.addViewController("/").setViewName("index");
        registry.addViewController("/index.html").setViewName("index");
        registry.addViewController("/index.htm").setViewName("index");
    }
}
    • 原理如下:
      • @EnableWebMvc注解源码如下:
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Target(ElementType.TYPE)
@Documented
@Import(DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration.class) //会向容器中导入DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration组件
public @interface EnableWebMvc {
}
      • DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration的部分源码如下:
@Configuration
public class DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration extends WebMvcConfigurationSupport {
    //其他略
}
      • WebMvcAutoConfiguration的部分源码如下:
@Configuration
@ConditionalOnWebApplication
@ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, DispatcherServlet.class,
        WebMvcConfigurerAdapter.class })
@ConditionalOnMissingBean(WebMvcConfigurationSupport.class) //只有在容器中没有WebMvcConfigurationSupport组件的时候,WebMvcAutoConfiguration才会起效,而@EnableWebMvc会将WebMvcConfigurationSupport组件导入到容器中
@AutoConfigureOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE + 10)
@AutoConfigureAfter({ DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration.class,
        ValidationAutoConfiguration.class })
public class WebMvcAutoConfiguration {
    //其他略   
}

5 如何修改SpringBoot的默认配置

  • SpringBoot在自动配置很多组件的时候,先看容器中有没有用户自己配置(@Bean、@Component),如果有,就使用用户自己配置的;如果没有,才自动配置;如果有些组件可以有多个(比如ViewResolver),就将用户配置的和自己默认的组合起来。

  • 在SpringBoot中会有非常多的xxxConfigurer帮助我们进行扩展配置。

  • 在SpringBoot中会有非常多的xxxCustomizer帮助我们进行定制配置。

6 错误处理机制

6.1 SpringBoot错误的默认效果

  • 如果是浏览器:返回一个默认的错误页面:

返回一个默认的错误页面.png

  • 如果是其他客户端:返回一个默认的JSON数据。

返回一个默认的JSON数据.png

  • 原理:可以参照ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration(错误处理的自动配置)。

    • ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration的部分源码如下:
@Configuration
@ConditionalOnWebApplication
@ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, DispatcherServlet.class })
// Load before the main WebMvcAutoConfiguration so that the error View is available
@AutoConfigureBefore(WebMvcAutoConfiguration.class)
@EnableConfigurationProperties(ResourceProperties.class)
public class ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration {
    //给容器中添加DefaultErrorAttributes组件
    @Bean
    @ConditionalOnMissingBean(value = ErrorAttributes.class, search = SearchStrategy.CURRENT)
    public DefaultErrorAttributes errorAttributes() {
        return new DefaultErrorAttributes();
    }
    //给容器中添加BasicErrorController组件
    @Bean
    @ConditionalOnMissingBean(value = ErrorController.class, search = SearchStrategy.CURRENT)
    public BasicErrorController basicErrorController(ErrorAttributes errorAttributes) {
        return new BasicErrorController(errorAttributes, this.serverProperties.getError(),
                this.errorViewResolvers);
    }
    //给容器中添加ErrorPageCustomizer组件
    @Bean
    public ErrorPageCustomizer errorPageCustomizer() {
        return new ErrorPageCustomizer(this.serverProperties);
    }
    
    @Configuration
    static class DefaultErrorViewResolverConfiguration {

        private final ApplicationContext applicationContext;

        private final ResourceProperties resourceProperties;

        DefaultErrorViewResolverConfiguration(ApplicationContext applicationContext,
                ResourceProperties resourceProperties) {
            this.applicationContext = applicationContext;
            this.resourceProperties = resourceProperties;
        }
         //给容器中添加DefaultErrorViewResolver组件
        @Bean
        @ConditionalOnBean(DispatcherServlet.class)
        @ConditionalOnMissingBean
        public DefaultErrorViewResolver conventionErrorViewResolver() {
            return new DefaultErrorViewResolver(this.applicationContext,
                    this.resourceProperties);
        }
    }
    //其他略
    
}
    • ErrorPageCustomizer:
@Configuration
@ConditionalOnWebApplication
@ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, DispatcherServlet.class })
// Load before the main WebMvcAutoConfiguration so that the error View is available
@AutoConfigureBefore(WebMvcAutoConfiguration.class)
@EnableConfigurationProperties(ResourceProperties.class)
public class ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration {
    /**
     * {@link EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer} that configures the container's error
     * pages.
     */
    private static class ErrorPageCustomizer implements ErrorPageRegistrar, Ordered {

        private final ServerProperties properties;

        protected ErrorPageCustomizer(ServerProperties properties) {
            this.properties = properties;
        }
     
         //            @Value("${error.path:/error}")  
         //getPath() = private String path = "/error";
         //系统出现错误以后会来到error请求进行处理。就如同在web.xml中配置错误页面规则
        @Override
        public void registerErrorPages(ErrorPageRegistry errorPageRegistry) {
            ErrorPage errorPage = new ErrorPage(this.properties.getServletPrefix()
                    + this.properties.getError().getPath());
            errorPageRegistry.addErrorPages(errorPage);
        }

        @Override
        public int getOrder() {
            return 0;
        }

    }
    //其他略
}
    • BasicErrorController:处理默认的/error请求。
@Controller
@RequestMapping("${server.error.path:${error.path:/error}}")
public class BasicErrorController extends AbstractErrorController {
    //产生HTML类型的数据,浏览器发送的请求来到这个方法处理
    @RequestMapping(produces = "text/html")
    public ModelAndView errorHtml(HttpServletRequest request,
            HttpServletResponse response) {
        HttpStatus status = getStatus(request);
         //getErrorAttributes其实就是调用的DefaultErrorAttributes的getErrorAttributes方法,而DefaultErrorAttributes是从容器中获取的。
        Map<String, Object> model = Collections.unmodifiableMap(getErrorAttributes(
                request, isIncludeStackTrace(request, MediaType.TEXT_HTML)));
        response.setStatus(status.value());
        ModelAndView modelAndView = resolveErrorView(request, response, status, model);
        return (modelAndView == null ? new ModelAndView("error", model) : modelAndView);
    }
    
    //产生JSON数据,其他客户端来到这个方法处理
    @RequestMapping
    @ResponseBody
    public ResponseEntity<Map<String, Object>> error(HttpServletRequest request) {
        Map<String, Object> body = getErrorAttributes(request,
                isIncludeStackTrace(request, MediaType.ALL));
        HttpStatus status = getStatus(request);
        return new ResponseEntity<Map<String, Object>>(body, status);
    }

    //略   
}
    • DefaultErrorViewResolver:
public class DefaultErrorViewResolver implements ErrorViewResolver, Ordered {
    private static final Map<Series, String> SERIES_VIEWS;

    static {
        Map<Series, String> views = new HashMap<Series, String>();
        views.put(Series.CLIENT_ERROR, "4xx");
        views.put(Series.SERVER_ERROR, "5xx");
        SERIES_VIEWS = Collections.unmodifiableMap(views);
    }
    @Override
    public ModelAndView resolveErrorView(HttpServletRequest request, HttpStatus status,
            Map<String, Object> model) {
        ModelAndView modelAndView = resolve(String.valueOf(status), model);
        if (modelAndView == null && SERIES_VIEWS.containsKey(status.series())) {
            modelAndView = resolve(SERIES_VIEWS.get(status.series()), model);
        }
        return modelAndView;
    }

    private ModelAndView resolve(String viewName, Map<String, Object> model) {
        //默认SpringBoot可以去找到一个页面 比如:/error/404
        String errorViewName = "error/" + viewName;
        //模板引擎可以解析这个页面地址就用模板引擎解析
        TemplateAvailabilityProvider provider = this.templateAvailabilityProviders
                .getProvider(errorViewName, this.applicationContext);
        if (provider != null) {
             //模板引擎可用的情况下返回errorViewName指定的视图地址
            return new ModelAndView(errorViewName, model);
        }
        //模板引擎不可用,就在静态资源文件夹下找errorViewName对象的页面
        return resolveResource(errorViewName, model);
    }

    private ModelAndView resolveResource(String viewName, Map<String, Object> model) {
        for (String location : this.resourceProperties.getStaticLocations()) {
            try {
                Resource resource = this.applicationContext.getResource(location);
                resource = resource.createRelative(viewName + ".html");
                if (resource.exists()) {
                    return new ModelAndView(new HtmlResourceView(resource), model);
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex) {
            }
        }
        return null;
    }    
    //其他略
    
}
    • DefaultErrorAttributes:
@Order(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE)
public class DefaultErrorAttributes{
    //帮助我们在页面中共享信息
    @Override
    public Map<String, Object> getErrorAttributes(RequestAttributes requestAttributes,
            boolean includeStackTrace) {
        Map<String, Object> errorAttributes = new LinkedHashMap<String, Object>();
        errorAttributes.put("timestamp", new Date());
        addStatus(errorAttributes, requestAttributes);
        addErrorDetails(errorAttributes, requestAttributes, includeStackTrace);
        addPath(errorAttributes, requestAttributes);
        return errorAttributes;
    }
}
    • 步骤:
      • 一旦系统出现4xx或者5xx之类的错误,ErrorPageCustomizer就会生效(定制错误的响应规则),就会来到/error请求,就会被BasicErrorController处理。
      • 响应页面:去哪个页面是由DefaultErrorViewResolver解析得到的。
public abstract class AbstractErrorController implements ErrorController {
     /**
     * Resolve any specific error views. By default this method delegates to
     * {@link ErrorViewResolver ErrorViewResolvers}.
     * @param request the request
     * @param response the response
     * @param status the HTTP status
     * @param model the suggested model
     * @return a specific {@link ModelAndView} or {@code null} if the default should be
     * used
     * @since 1.4.0
     */
    protected ModelAndView resolveErrorView(HttpServletRequest request,
            HttpServletResponse response, HttpStatus status, Map<String, Object> model) {
        for (ErrorViewResolver resolver : this.errorViewResolvers) {
            ModelAndView modelAndView = resolver.resolveErrorView(request, status, model);
            if (modelAndView != null) {
                return modelAndView;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }
    //其他略
}

6.2 如果定制错误响应

6.2.1 如何定制错误页面

  • 如果有模板引擎的情况下,默认请求error/状态码,并且返回error/状态码的视图地址,那么我们只需要将错误页面命名为错误状态码.html并放在模板引擎文件夹(默认是classpath:/template)里面的error文件夹下。

    • 我们可以使用4xx和5xx作为错误页面的文件名来匹配这种类型的所有错误,精确优先(比如同时存在404.html和4xx.html,那么当发生404的错误的时候,会优先寻找404.html,一旦匹配到了,就响应404.html)。
    • 页面能获取的信息:
      • timestamp:时间戳。
      • status:状态码。
      • error:错误提示。
      • exception:异常对象。
      • errors:JSR303错误校验的信息。
      • path:错误路径。
  • 如果没有模板引擎(模板引擎找不多对应的错误页面),就去静态资源文件夹下寻找。

  • 以上都没有错误页面,就来到SpringBoot默认的错误提示页面。

6.2.2 如何定制错误的JSON数据

  • 自定义异常处理&返回定义JSON数据:
package com.sunxiaping.springboot.config;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ExceptionHandler;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseBody;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * @ControllerAdvice标注的类:就是对控制器进行增强,在这个类中,可以使用@InitBinder、@InitBinder和@ModelAttribute,这些功能都可以被所有的控制器共享
 */
@ControllerAdvice
public class SelfExceptionHandler {
    //浏览器客户端返回的都是JSON
    @ExceptionHandler(value = SelfException.class)
    @ResponseBody
    public Map<String,Object> handleException(SelfException e){
        Map<String,Object> map = new HashMap<>();
        map.put("code",1);
        map.put("msg",e.getMessage());
        return map;
    }   
}
  • 转发到/error进行自适应响应效果处理:
package com.sunxiaping.springboot.config;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ExceptionHandler;

import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * @ControllerAdvice标注的类:就是对控制器进行增强,在这个类中,可以使用@InitBinder、@InitBinder和@ModelAttribute,这些功能都可以被所有的控制器共享
 */
@ControllerAdvice
public class SelfExceptionHandler {

    @ExceptionHandler(value = SelfException.class)
    public String handleException(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, SelfException e) {
        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();
        //传入我们自己的错误状态码,否则就不会进入定制的错误页面的解析流程
        request.setAttribute("javax.servlet.error.status_code", 500);
        map.put("code", 1);
        map.put("msg", e.getMessage());
        return "forward:/error";
    }

}
  • 将我们的定制数据携带出去:

    • 出现错误以后,会来到/error请求,会被BasicErrorController处理,响应出去可以获取的数据是由getErrorAttributes得到的(是AbstractErrorController中规定的方法),所以我们可以编写一个ErrorController的实现类或AbstractErrorController的子类,放在容器中。
    • 页面上能用的数据或者是JSON返回能用的数据都是通过errorAttributes.getErrorAttributes()方法得到的,容器中的DefaultErrorAttributes.getErrorAttributes()方法是默认进行数据处理的。
package com.sunxiaping.springboot.config;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ExceptionHandler;

import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * @ControllerAdvice标注的类:就是对控制器进行增强,在这个类中,可以使用@InitBinder、@InitBinder和@ModelAttribute,这些功能都可以被所有的控制器共享
 */
@ControllerAdvice
public class SelfExceptionHandler {

    @ExceptionHandler(value = SelfException.class)
    public String handleException(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, SelfException e) {
        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();
        //传入我们自己的错误状态码
        request.setAttribute("javax.servlet.error.status_code", 500);
        map.put("code", 1);
        map.put("msg", e.getMessage());

        request.setAttribute("ext", map);
        return "forward:/error";
    }

}
package com.sunxiaping.springboot.config;

import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.DefaultErrorAttributes;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
import org.springframework.web.context.request.RequestAttributes;

import java.util.Map;

@Component
public class SelfErrorAttributes extends DefaultErrorAttributes {
    @Override
    public Map<String, Object> getErrorAttributes(RequestAttributes requestAttributes, boolean includeStackTrace) {
        Map<String, Object> map = super.getErrorAttributes(requestAttributes, includeStackTrace);
        Object ext = requestAttributes.getAttribute("ext", RequestAttributes.SCOPE_REQUEST);
        map.put("ext", ext);
        return map;
    }
}

7 配置嵌入式Servlet容器

7.1 如何定制和修改Servlet容器的相关配置

7.1.1 修改和server有关的配置(ServerProperties)

server:
  port: 8081
  context-path: /spring
  tomcat:
    uri-encoding: utf-8

# 通用的servlet容器配置
server:
    xxx: 
# Tomcat的设置
server:
    tomcat: 
        xxx:

7.1.2 编写一个EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer(嵌入式的Servlet容器的定制器)来修改Servlet有关配置

package com.sunxiaping.springboot.config;

import org.springframework.boot.context.embedded.ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer;
import org.springframework.boot.context.embedded.EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.ViewControllerRegistry;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.WebMvcConfigurerAdapter;

@Configuration
public class SpringMvcConfig extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
        registry.addViewController("/index").setViewName("index");
        registry.addViewController("/").setViewName("index");
        registry.addViewController("/index.html").setViewName("index");
        registry.addViewController("/index.htm").setViewName("index");
    }

    @Bean
    public EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer embeddedServletContainerCustomizer() {
        return new EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer() {
            /**定制嵌入式的Servlet容器的相关规则
             * @param container
             */
            @Override
            public void customize(ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer container) {
                container.setPort(8081);
            }
        };
    }   
}

7.1.3 注册Servlet三大组件

package com.sunxiaping.springboot.servet;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.io.IOException;

public class SelfServlet extends HttpServlet {

    @Override
    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {
        resp.getWriter().println("hello servlet");
    }

    @Override
    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {
        this.doGet(req, resp);
    }
}
package com.sunxiaping.springboot.config;

import com.sunxiaping.springboot.servet.SelfServlet;
import org.springframework.boot.web.servlet.ServletRegistrationBean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;

@Configuration
public class ServletConfig {

    /**
     * 注册Servlet,向容器中添加ServletRegistrationBean组件
     * 注册Filter,向容器中添加FilterRegistrationBean组件
     * 注册Listener,向容器中添加ServletListenerRegistrationBean组件
     *
     * @return
     */
    @Bean
    public ServletRegistrationBean servletRegistrationBean() {
        return new ServletRegistrationBean(new SelfServlet(), "/hello");
    }
}

7.2 SpringBoot支持其他的Servlet容器

  • SpringBoot默认支持Tomcat、Jetty、Undertow。

SpringBoot默认支持的Servlet容器.png

  • Tomcat(默认支持):
<dependency>
    <!-- 引入web模块,默认支持Tomcat -->
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>
  • Jetty:
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
    <exclusions>
        <exclusion>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        </exclusion>
    </exclusions>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jetty</artifactId>
</dependency>
  • Undertow:
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
    <exclusions>
        <exclusion>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        </exclusion>
    </exclusions>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-undertow</artifactId>
</dependency>

7.3 嵌入式Servlet容器自动配置原理

  • EmbeddedServletContainerAutoConfiguration:嵌入式的Servlet容器自动配置
@AutoConfigureOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE)
@Configuration
@ConditionalOnWebApplication
@Import(BeanPostProcessorsRegistrar.class) 
//BeanPostProcessorsRegistrar:给容器中导入一些组件。
//导入了EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizerBeanPostProcessor
//后置处理器:Bean初始化前后(创建完对象,还没赋值)执行初始化工作。
public class EmbeddedServletContainerAutoConfiguration {
    
    @Configuration
    @ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, Tomcat.class }) //判断当前是否引入了Tomcat的依赖
    @ConditionalOnMissingBean(value = EmbeddedServletContainerFactory.class, search = SearchStrategy.CURRENT)//判断当前容器没有用户自己定义的EmbeddedServletContainerFactory:嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂;作用是创建嵌入式的Servlet容器
    public static class EmbeddedTomcat {

        @Bean
        public TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory tomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory() {
            return new TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory();
        }

    }
    
    /**
     * Nested configuration if Jetty is being used.
     */
    @Configuration
    @ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, Server.class, Loader.class,
            WebAppContext.class })
    @ConditionalOnMissingBean(value = EmbeddedServletContainerFactory.class, search = SearchStrategy.CURRENT)
    public static class EmbeddedJetty {

        @Bean
        public JettyEmbeddedServletContainerFactory jettyEmbeddedServletContainerFactory() {
            return new JettyEmbeddedServletContainerFactory();
        }

    }

    /**
     * Nested configuration if Undertow is being used.
     */
    @Configuration
    @ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, Undertow.class, SslClientAuthMode.class })
    @ConditionalOnMissingBean(value = EmbeddedServletContainerFactory.class, search = SearchStrategy.CURRENT)
    public static class EmbeddedUndertow {

        @Bean
        public UndertowEmbeddedServletContainerFactory undertowEmbeddedServletContainerFactory() {
            return new UndertowEmbeddedServletContainerFactory();
        }

    }
    //略
    
}
  • EmbeddedServletContainerFactory:嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂
public interface EmbeddedServletContainerFactory {

    /**
     * 获取的嵌入式的Servlet容器
     */
    EmbeddedServletContainer getEmbeddedServletContainer(
            ServletContextInitializer... initializers);

}

嵌入式的Servlet容器.png

  • EmbeddedServletContainer:嵌入式的Servlet容器。
public interface EmbeddedServletContainer {

    /**
     * Starts the embedded servlet container. Calling this method on an already started
     * container has no effect.
     * @throws EmbeddedServletContainerException if the container cannot be started
     */
    void start() throws EmbeddedServletContainerException;

    /**
     * Stops the embedded servlet container. Calling this method on an already stopped
     * container has no effect.
     * @throws EmbeddedServletContainerException if the container cannot be stopped
     */
    void stop() throws EmbeddedServletContainerException;

    /**
     * Return the port this server is listening on.
     * @return the port (or -1 if none)
     */
    int getPort();

}

嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂.png

  • 以TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory为例:
public class TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory
        extends AbstractEmbeddedServletContainerFactory implements ResourceLoaderAware {
    @Override
    public EmbeddedServletContainer getEmbeddedServletContainer(
            ServletContextInitializer... initializers) {
         //创建一个Tomcat
        Tomcat tomcat = new Tomcat();
         //配置TOmcat的基本环境
        File baseDir = (this.baseDirectory != null ? this.baseDirectory
                : createTempDir("tomcat"));
        tomcat.setBaseDir(baseDir.getAbsolutePath());
        Connector connector = new Connector(this.protocol);
        tomcat.getService().addConnector(connector);
        customizeConnector(connector);
        tomcat.setConnector(connector);
        tomcat.getHost().setAutoDeploy(false);
        configureEngine(tomcat.getEngine());
        for (Connector additionalConnector : this.additionalTomcatConnectors) {
            tomcat.getService().addConnector(additionalConnector);
        }
        prepareContext(tomcat.getHost(), initializers);
         //将配置好的Tomcat传入进去,返回一个嵌入式的Servlet容器,并且启动Tomcat服务器
        return getTomcatEmbeddedServletContainer(tomcat);
    }
    
    protected TomcatEmbeddedServletContainer getTomcatEmbeddedServletContainer(
            Tomcat tomcat) {
        return new TomcatEmbeddedServletContainer(tomcat, getPort() >= 0);
    }
    
    public TomcatEmbeddedServletContainer(Tomcat tomcat, boolean autoStart) {
        Assert.notNull(tomcat, "Tomcat Server must not be null");
        this.tomcat = tomcat;
        this.autoStart = autoStart;
        initialize();
    }
    private void initialize() throws EmbeddedServletContainerException {
        TomcatEmbeddedServletContainer.logger
                .info("Tomcat initialized with port(s): " + getPortsDescription(false));
        synchronized (this.monitor) {
            try {
                addInstanceIdToEngineName();
                try {
                    // Remove service connectors to that protocol binding doesn't happen
                    // yet
                    removeServiceConnectors();

                    // 启动Tomcat
                    this.tomcat.start();

                    // We can re-throw failure exception directly in the main thread
                    rethrowDeferredStartupExceptions();

                    Context context = findContext();
                    try {
                        ContextBindings.bindClassLoader(context, getNamingToken(context),
                                getClass().getClassLoader());
                    }
                    catch (NamingException ex) {
                        // Naming is not enabled. Continue
                    }

                    // Unlike Jetty, all Tomcat threads are daemon threads. We create a
                    // blocking non-daemon to stop immediate shutdown
                    startDaemonAwaitThread();
                }
                catch (Exception ex) {
                    containerCounter.decrementAndGet();
                    throw ex;
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex) {
                throw new EmbeddedServletContainerException(
                        "Unable to start embedded Tomcat", ex);
            }
        }
    }
    //略
}
  • 我们对嵌入式容器的配置修改是怎么修改的?

    • ServerProperties。ServerProperties其实是EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer的子类。
    • EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer:定制器帮我们修改了Servlet容器的配置。
  • 容器中导入了EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizerBeanPostProcessor:

public class EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizerBeanPostProcessor
        implements BeanPostProcessor, BeanFactoryAware {
    //在初始化之前
    @Override
    public Object postProcessBeforeInitialization(Object bean, String beanName)
            throws BeansException {
         //如果当前初始化的是一个ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer类型的组件
        if (bean instanceof ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer) {
             //EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer定制器,调用每个定制器的customize方法,来给Servlet容器进行属性赋值
            postProcessBeforeInitialization((ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer) bean);
        }
        return bean;
    }
    @Override
    public Object postProcessAfterInitialization(Object bean, String beanName)
            throws BeansException {
        return bean;
    }

    private void postProcessBeforeInitialization(
            ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer bean) {
        for (EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer customizer : getCustomizers()) {
            customizer.customize(bean);
        }
    }
    private Collection<EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer> getCustomizers() {
        if (this.customizers == null) {
            // Look up does not include the parent context
            this.customizers = new ArrayList<EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer>(
                    this.beanFactory
                               //从容器中获取所有EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer类型的组件
                               //所以定制容器,可以给容器中配置EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer类型的组件
                            .getBeansOfType(EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer.class,
                                    false, false)
                            .values());
            Collections.sort(this.customizers, AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.INSTANCE);
            this.customizers = Collections.unmodifiableList(this.customizers);
        }
        return this.customizers;
    }
    //其他略
    
}

总结:

  • SpringBoot根据导入的依赖情况,给容器中添加相应的EmbeddedServletContainerFactory(以TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory为例)。

  • 容器中某个组件要创建对象就会惊动后置处理器(EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizerBeanPostProcessor),是因为EmbeddedServletContainerAutoConfiguration中使用@Import注解,导入了BeanPostProcessorsRegistrar,而BeanPostProcessorsRegistrar是一个ImportBeanDefinitionRegistrar,向容器中导入了EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizerBeanPostProcessor,简而言之,只要是嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂,后置处理器就工作。

  • 后置处理器,从容器中获取所有的EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer,调用定制器的customize(ServerProperties其实就是EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer)。

7.4 嵌入式Servlet容器启动原理

  • SpringBoot应用启动运行run方法。

  • refreshContext(context);SpringBoot刷新IOC容器(创建IOC容器,并初始化容器,创建容器中的每一个组件);如果是Web应用,创建的是AnnotationConfigEmbeddedWebApplicationContext;如果不是web应用,创建的是ConfigurableWebApplicationContext。

  • refresh(context);刷新刚才创建好的web容器。

@Override
public void refresh() throws BeansException, IllegalStateException {
    synchronized (this.startupShutdownMonitor) {
        // Prepare this context for refreshing.
        prepareRefresh();

        // Tell the subclass to refresh the internal bean factory.
        ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory = obtainFreshBeanFactory();

        // Prepare the bean factory for use in this context.
        prepareBeanFactory(beanFactory);

        try {
            // Allows post-processing of the bean factory in context subclasses.
            postProcessBeanFactory(beanFactory);

            // Invoke factory processors registered as beans in the context.
            invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(beanFactory);

            // Register bean processors that intercept bean creation.
            registerBeanPostProcessors(beanFactory);

            // Initialize message source for this context.
            initMessageSource();

            // Initialize event multicaster for this context.
            initApplicationEventMulticaster();

            // 刷新容器
            onRefresh();

            // Check for listener beans and register them.
            registerListeners();

            // Instantiate all remaining (non-lazy-init) singletons.
            finishBeanFactoryInitialization(beanFactory);

            // Last step: publish corresponding event.
            finishRefresh();
        }

        catch (BeansException ex) {
            if (logger.isWarnEnabled()) {
                logger.warn("Exception encountered during context initialization - " +
                            "cancelling refresh attempt: " + ex);
            }

            // Destroy already created singletons to avoid dangling resources.
            destroyBeans();

            // Reset 'active' flag.
            cancelRefresh(ex);

            // Propagate exception to caller.
            throw ex;
        }

        finally {
            // Reset common introspection caches in Spring's core, since we
            // might not ever need metadata for singleton beans anymore...
            resetCommonCaches();
        }
    }
}
  • onRefresh();web的IOC容器重写了onRefresh方法。

  • web的IOC容器会创建嵌入式的Servlet容器。

public class EmbeddedWebApplicationContext extends GenericWebApplicationContext {
    
    @Override
    protected void onRefresh() {
        super.onRefresh();
        try {
            //创建嵌入式的Servlet容器
            createEmbeddedServletContainer();
        }
        catch (Throwable ex) {
            throw new ApplicationContextException("Unable to start embedded container",
                    ex);
        }
    }
    
    private void createEmbeddedServletContainer() {
        EmbeddedServletContainer localContainer = this.embeddedServletContainer;
        ServletContext localServletContext = getServletContext();
        if (localContainer == null && localServletContext == null) {
            //获取嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂
             //从IOC容器中获取EmbeddedServletContainerFactory组件。TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory创建对象,后置处理器一看是这个对象,就获取所有的定制器来先定制Servlet容器的相关配置
            EmbeddedServletContainerFactory containerFactory = getEmbeddedServletContainerFactory();
            this.embeddedServletContainer = containerFactory
                    .getEmbeddedServletContainer(getSelfInitializer());
        }
        else if (localServletContext != null) {
            try {
                getSelfInitializer().onStartup(localServletContext);
            }
            catch (ServletException ex) {
                throw new ApplicationContextException("Cannot initialize servlet context",
                        ex);
            }
        }
        initPropertySources();
    }
    //其他略
    
}
  • 获取嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂:
public class EmbeddedWebApplicationContext extends GenericWebApplicationContext {
    
    @Override
    protected void onRefresh() {
        super.onRefresh();
        try {
            //创建嵌入式的Servlet容器
            createEmbeddedServletContainer();
        }
        catch (Throwable ex) {
            throw new ApplicationContextException("Unable to start embedded container",
                    ex);
        }
    }
    
    private void createEmbeddedServletContainer() {
        EmbeddedServletContainer localContainer = this.embeddedServletContainer;
        ServletContext localServletContext = getServletContext();
        if (localContainer == null && localServletContext == null) {
            //获取嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂
             //从IOC容器中获取EmbeddedServletContainerFactory组件。TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory创建对象,后置处理器一看是这个对象,就获取所有的定制器来先定制Servlet容器的相关配置
            EmbeddedServletContainerFactory containerFactory = getEmbeddedServletContainerFactory();
            this.embeddedServletContainer = containerFactory
                    .getEmbeddedServletContainer(getSelfInitializer());
        }
        else if (localServletContext != null) {
            try {
                getSelfInitializer().onStartup(localServletContext);
            }
            catch (ServletException ex) {
                throw new ApplicationContextException("Cannot initialize servlet context",
                        ex);
            }
        }
        initPropertySources();
    }
    //其他略
    
}
  • 使用容器工厂获取嵌入式的Servlet容器:this.embeddedServletContainer = containerFactory.getEmbeddedServletContainer(getSelfInitializer());

  • 嵌入式的Servlet容器创建对象并启动Servlet容器。

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